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Pulse Enhanced Electron Emission
Using P3e® coating technology, Balzers was the first company in the world to deposit hard corundum typed aluminium-oxide based coatings in a PVD process at temperatures significantly below 600 °C. Such coatings could previously only be produced by CVD at much higher temperatures. The CVD process is however associated with a risk of embrittlement for some grades of cemented carbides, and it is virtually impossible to use it to coat steels. P3e® was primarily developed for tools, but they are also suitable for mechanical elements when both insulating properties and high temperature and corrosion resistance are required. P3e® is a proprietary Oerlikon Balzers technology.
P3e® technology is based on arc evaporation and pulse technology and can be run in a pure oxygen atmosphere. Pulse current controls electron emission and plasma density. The support layer and the aluminium oxide-based layer are applied in a single pass at temperatures well below 600°C. P3e® technology allows the deposition of any metal oxide (Al2O3, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ta2O5, etc.) and any combination of metal oxides. P3e® is available as an option with INNOVA and INGENIA coating systems or can be retrofitted to your system on-site.